Hamburg in Hamburg
Hamburg (; , local pronunciation ; Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg ) is the second-largest city in Germany and the seventh-largest city in the European Union. The city is home to over 1.8 million people, while the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (including parts of the neighbouring Federal States of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein) has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. The port of Hamburg is the third-largest port in Europe (after the Port of Rotterdam and the Port of Antwerp) and it is among the twenty largest in the world.
Hamburg's official name is the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg). It reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, as a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, and also the fact that Hamburg is a city-state and one of the sixteen States of Germany.
Hamburg is a major transport hub in Northern Germany and is one of the most affluent cities in Europe. It has become a media and industrial centre, with plants and facilities belonging to Airbus, Blohm + Voss and Aurubis. The radio and television broadcaster Norddeutscher Rundfunk and publishers such as Gruner + Jahr and Spiegel-Verlag are pillars of the important media industry in Hamburg. In total there are more than 120,000 enterprises.
The city is a major tourist destination both for domestic and overseas visitors, receiving about 7.7 million overnight stays in 2008. Hamburg ranked 23rd in the world for livability in 2009, higher in some alternate rankings |date=August 2010
The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva. But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808. The castle was built on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion. The castle was named Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort. The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain, as does the exact location of the castle.
In 834, Hamburg was designated the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric, whose first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and Hamburg subsequently received Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France and, in the 17th century, Sephardi Jews from Portugal.
Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. In 845, a fleet of 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg which, at that time, was a town of around 500 inhabitants. This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance with Lübeck in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. On 8 November 1266, a contract between Henry III and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the trading guild of the Hanseatic League. The first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in the German language, the Ordeelbook (Ordeel: sentence) was written by the solicitor of the senate of Hamburg, Jordan von Boitzenburg, in 1270. On August 10, 1410, civil unrest forced a compromise (German:Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal). This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg.
Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges (mediatised), but became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. Hamburg was briefly annexed by Napoleon I to the First French Empire (1810–14). Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. Hamburg reassumed its pre-1811 status as a city-state in 1814. The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation (1815–66).
In 1860, the state of Hamburg adopted a republican constitution. Hamburg became a city-state within the North German Confederation (1866–71), the German Empire (1871–1918) and during the period of the Weimar Republic (1919–33). Hamburg experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's third-largest port. With Albert Ballin as its director, the Hamburg-America Line became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company at the turn of the century. Shipping companies sailing to South America, Africa, India and East Asia were based in the city. Hamburg was the departure port for most Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Trading communities from all over the world established themselves here.
A major outbreak of cholera in 1892 was badly handled by the city government, which still retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city at the time. About 8,600 died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world.
Second World War
In the Third Reich, Hamburg was a Gau from 1934 until 1945. During World War II Hamburg suffered a series of British air raids, which devastated much of the inhabited city as well as harbour areas. On 23 July 1943 a firestorm developed as a result of British firebombing and, spreading from the Hauptbahnhof (central station) and quickly moving south-east, completely destroyed entire boroughs, such as Hammerbrook, Billbrook or Hamm-south. These densely populated working-class boroughs underwent a dramatic demographic change as a result as thousands of people perished in the flames. While some of the destroyed boroughs have been rebuilt as residential areas after the war, others such as Hammerbrook are nowadays purely commercial areas with almost no residential population. The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the RAF, killed about 40,000 civilians; the precise number is not known. About 1 million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids.
At least 42,900 people are thought to have perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp (situated about 25 km outside the city in the marshlands), mostly due to epidemics and in the bombing of evacuation vessels at the end of the war.
Hamburg surrendered without a fight to British Forces on 3 May 1945. After World War II, Hamburg was in the British Zone of Occupation and became a state of the then Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. On 16 February 1962, the North Sea flood of that year caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people. In 1961, the Beatles became famous by playing music in clubs in Hamburg.
The Inner German Border — only 50 km east of Hamburg — separated the city from most of its hinterland and further reduced Hamburg's global trade. After German reunification in 1990, and the accession of some Eastern European and Baltic States into the EU in 2004, the Port of Hamburg has ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre.
On 31 December 2006 there were 1,754,182 people registered as living in Hamburg (up by 6.2% from 1,652,363 in 1990) in an area of 755.3 km2. The population density was 2322 PD/sqkm. The metropolitan area of the Hamburg region (Hamburg Metropolitan Region) is home to about 4.3 million, living on 19,000 km2.
There were 856,132 men and 898,050 women in Hamburg. For every 1,000 males there were 1,049 females. In 2006 there were 16,089 births in Hamburg (of which 33.1% were to unmarried women), 6,921 marriages and 4,583 divorces. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.7% under the age of 18, and 18.8% were 65 years of age or older.
In 2007, 30.7% of Hamburg's population belonged to the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, and 10.2% to the Roman Catholic Church. Two years later, by the end of 2009, 29.9 % of Hamburg's population belonged to the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, and 10.1% to the Roman Catholic Church. 60 % of the population does not belong to one of these two churches of these - according to an estimate, there are 90,000 Muslims (74% Sunni, 13% Alevi and 8% Shi'ite). However, Alevis do not always identify as Muslims. The remainder of the population consists of members of smaller Christian churches, Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, Jews, and those unaffiliated with any faith. Hamburg is seat of one of the three bishops of the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg. There are several mosques, including the Islamic Centre Hamburg and a growing Jewish community.
The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German states, therefore the Mayor of Hamburg's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor. As a German state government, it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services.
Since 1897, the seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus, with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament. From 2001 until 2010, the mayor of Hamburg was Ole von Beust, who governed in Germany's first state-wide "black-green" coalition, consisting of the conservative CDU and the alternative GAL, which are Hamburg's regional wing of the Alliance '90/The Greens party. Von Beust was briefly succeeded by Christoph Ahlhaus in 2010 but the coalition broke apart on November, 28. 2010. On 7 March 2011 Olaf Scholz (SPD) became mayor.
Hamburg is made up of 7 boroughs (German: Bezirke) and subdivided into 105 quarters (German: Stadtteile). There are also 180 localities (German: Ortsteile). The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws. Most of the quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed into Hamburg proper. The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937, when the cities Altona, Harburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg. The Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg established Hamburg as a state and a municipality. Some of the boroughs and quarters have been rearranged several times over the years.
Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (German: Bezirksversammlung) and administered by a Municipal Administrator (German: Bezirksamtsleiter). The boroughs of Hamburg are not independent municipalities. The power of borough governments is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Hamburg. The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburgs' Senate.
Altona is the westernmost urban borough on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864 Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937. Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Altona-Altstadt, Altona-Nord, Bahrenfeld, Ottensen, Othmarschen, Groß Flottbek, Osdorf, Lurup, Nienstedten, Blankenese, Iserbrook, Sülldorf, Rissen, Sternschanze. The city has the highest GDP in Germany – €50,000 per capita – and a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over 120,000 businesses. In 2007, the average income of employees was €30,937. The Internet and telecommunications company HanseNet, which sells DSL Internet access under the Alice brand, has its headquarters in Hamburg.
Hamburg was one of the locations for the film Tomorrow Never Dies of the James Bond series. The Reeperbahn street has been location for many sets, including the 1994 Beatles film Backbeat.
Hamburg has 54 hospitals. The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, with about 1,300 beds, houses a large medical school. There are also smaller private hospitals. On December 31, 2007 there were about 12,600 hospital beds in Hamburg proper. The city had 1,061 day-care centres for children, 3,841 physicians in private practice and 462 pharmacies in 2006.</small>
- León, Nicaragua, since 1989
- Osaka, Japan, since 1989
- Prague, Czech Republic, since 1990
- Chicago, United States, since 1994
- Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, since 2010
People from Hamburg
- Hamburg guide for residents and visitors. Hamburg Führer Verlag GmbH, Hamburg, published 12 times p. a.
- Outline of Germany