Heathrow Airport in London

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</ref> New branches of both the Heathrow Express and the Underground's Piccadilly Line serve a new shared Heathrow Terminal 5 station.

Airlines and destinations

{{Airport destination list |3rdcoltitle=Terminal |Aegean Airlines|Athens, Larnaca| 1 |Aer Lingus|Belfast-International, Cork, Dublin, Shannon | 1 |Aeroflot|Moscow-Sheremetyevo | 4 |Air Algérie|Algiers | 4 |Air Astana|Almaty | 4 |Air Canada|Calgary, Edmonton, Halifax, Montréal-Trudeau, Ottawa, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver
Seasonal: St. John's | 3 |Air China|Beijing-Capital | 3 |Air France|Paris-Charles de Gaulle | 4 |Air India|Delhi, Mumbai | 4 |Air Malta|Malta | 4 |Air Mauritius | Mauritius | 4 |Air New Zealand | Auckland, Hong Kong, Los Angeles | 1 |Air Seychelles | Mahé [ends 8 January] | 4 |Air Transat | Seasonal: Toronto-Pearson | 4 |Alitalia|Milan-Linate, Rome-Fiumicino | 4 |Alitalia operated by Air One|Rome-Fiumicino | 4 |All Nippon Airways | Tokyo-Narita | 3 |American Airlines | Boston, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York-JFK, Raleigh/Durham | 3 |Arik Air | Lagos | 4 |Asiana Airlines | Seoul-Incheon | 1 |Austrian Airlines | Vienna | 1 |Austrian Airlines operated by Tyrolean Airways|Vienna | 1 |Azerbaijan Airlines | Baku | 4 |Biman Bangladesh Airlines | Dhaka, Dubai | 4 |BMI | Addis Ababa, Agadir, Almaty, Amman-Queen Alia, Amritsar, Baku, Basel/Mulhouse, Beirut, Belfast-City, Berlin-Brandenburg [begins 3 June 2012], Berlin-Tegel [ends 2 June 2012], Bishkek, Cairo, Casablanca, Damascus, Dammam, Dublin, Edinburgh, Freetown, Jeddah, Khartoum, Manchester, Marrakech, Moscow-Domodedovo, Nice, Riyadh, Tbilisi, Tehran-Imam Khomeini, Tripoli [resumes 26 December], Vienna, Yerevan | 1 |BMI operated by BMI Regional|Aberdeen, Bergen, Edinburgh, Hanover, Manchester, Stavanger|1 |British Airways | Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Bucharest-Otopeni, Budapest, Gibraltar, Helsinki, Larnaca, Lisbon, Prague, Singapore, Sydney, Vienna, Warsaw | 3 |British Airways|Aberdeen, Abu Dhabi, Abuja, Accra, Algiers [ends 24 March 2012], Amsterdam, Athens, Atlanta, Bahrain, Baltimore, Bangalore, Barcelona, Basel/Mulhouse, Beijing-Capital, Berlin-Brandenburg [Begins 3 June 2012], Berlin-Tegel [Ends 2 June 2012], Bologna [begins 29 April 2012], Boston, Brussels, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Cairo, Calgary, Cape Town, Chennai, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Dar es Salaam, Delhi, Denver, Doha, Dubai, Düsseldorf, Edinburgh, Entebbe, Frankfurt, Geneva, Glasgow-International, Gothenburg-Landvetter, Grand Cayman, Hamburg, Helsinki, Hong Kong, Houston-Intercontinental, Hyderabad, Istanbul-Atatürk, Jeddah, Johannesburg, Kiev-Boryspil, Kuwait, Lagos, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Luanda, Lusaka, Luxembourg, Lyon, Madrid, Manchester, Mexico City, Miami, Milan-Linate, Milan-Malpensa, Montréal-Trudeau, Moscow-Domodedovo, Mumbai, Munich, Muscat, Nairobi, Nassau, New York-JFK, Newark, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nice, Oslo-Gardermoen, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Paris-Orly, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pisa, Providenciales, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, Riyadh, Rome-Fiumicino, St Petersburg, San Diego, San Francisco, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai-Pudong, Sofia, Stockholm-Arlanda, Stuttgart, Tel Aviv, Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita, Toronto-Pearson, Toulouse, Vancouver, Venice, Washington-Dulles, Zürich | 5 |Brussels Airlines | Brussels | 1 |Bulgaria Air | Sofia | 4 |Cathay Pacific | Hong Kong | 3 |China Airlines | Taipei-Taoyuan | 4 |China Eastern Airlines | Shanghai-Pudong | 4 |Continental Airlines | Houston-Intercontinental, Newark | 4 |Croatia Airlines | Zagreb
Seasonal: Rijeka, Split | 1 |Cyprus Airways|Larnaca | 1 |Delta Air Lines | Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Miami, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-JFK | 4 |EgyptAir | Cairo, Luxor, Sharm el-Sheikh| 3 |El Al|Tel Aviv | 1 |Emirates|Dubai | 3 |Ethiopian Airlines | Addis Ababa | 3 |Etihad Airways | Abu Dhabi | 4 |EVA Air | Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Taipei-Taoyuan | 3 |Finnair | Helsinki | 3 |Gulf Air | Bahrain | 4 |Iberia | Madrid | 3 |Icelandair | Reykjavik-Keflavík | 1 |Iran Air | Tehran-Imam Khomeini | 3 |Japan Airlines | Tokyo-Narita | 3 |Jat Airways | Belgrade | 4 |Jet Airways | Delhi, Mumbai | 4 |Kenya Airways | Nairobi | 4 |Kingfisher Airlines | Delhi, Mumbai | 4 |KLM | Amsterdam| 4 |KLM operated by KLM Cityhopper | Amsterdam | 4 |Korean Air|Seoul-Incheon | 4 |Kuwait Airways|Kuwait, New York-JFK | 4 |Libyan Arab Airlines|Tripoli | 4 |LOT Polish Airlines|Warsaw | 1 |Lufthansa| Cologne/Bonn [resumes 25 March 2012], Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich | 1 |Lufthansa operated by BMI | Cologne/Bonn [ends 25 March 2012] | 1 |Lufthansa Regional operated by Contact Air | Stuttgart | 1 |Malaysia Airlines|Kuala Lumpur | 4 |Middle East Airlines|Beirut | 3 |Oman Air|Muscat | 3 |Pakistan International Airlines | Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Sialkot | 3 |Qantas | Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi [ends 25 March 2012], Hong Kong [ends 25 March 2012]:

  • Terminal 1: Star Alliance – plus a few non-aligned airlines
  • Terminal 3: Oneworld – plus Virgin Atlantic and several other non-aligned airlines as well as Star Alliance members not based in Terminal 1
  • Terminal 4: SkyTeam – and all other non-aligned airlines
  • Terminal 5: British Airways

Further moves are dependent on the airport's significant construction schedule but will broadly be as follows:

  • In January 2014:
    • All Star Alliance airlines will move into Phase 1 of the new Terminal 2
    • Terminal 1 will be gradually demolished to make way for Phase 2 of the new Terminal 2
  • In early 2019:
    • Phase 2 of the new Terminal 2 will open, enabling further moves to relieve pressure on Terminal 3

Cargo

Other facilities

The head office of BAA Limited is located in the Compass Centre by Heathrow's northern runway, a building that previously served as a British Airways flight crew centre. The World Business Centre Heathrow consists of buildings one and two. 1 World Business Centre houses offices of BAA Limited, Heathrow Airport, and Scandinavian Airlines. International Airlines Group has its head office in 2 World Business Centre.

At one time, the British Airways head office, was located within Heathrow Airport at Speedbird House before the completion of Waterside, the current BA head office in Harmondsworth, in June 1998.

Traffic and statistics

Although BAA claims that Heathrow is the "world's busiest international airport", in 2010 it ranked fourth-busiest by total passenger traffic, after Atlanta, Beijing and Chicago O'Hare which are all international airports. However, Heathrow does have the highest number of international passengers.

In 2010, Heathrow was the busiest airport in Europe in terms of total passenger traffic, with 13.2% more passengers than Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport and 24.3% more than Frankfurt Airport, However, it was in second place behind Charles de Gaulle in terms of total aircraft movements in 2009 with 11.2% fewer landings and take offs than its French counterpart. Heathrow was the third busiest European airport by cargo traffic in 2009, after Paris Charles de Gaulle and Frankfurt.

Busiest international routes at Heathrow (2010)
RankAirportPassengers handled% Change
2009 / 10
1New York City – JFK2,517,8962
2Dubai1,787,5613
3Dublin1,493,6138
4Hong Kong1,386,7799
5Amsterdam1,333,12412
6Paris – CDG1,299,7013
7Frankfurt am Main1,266,2405
8Los Angeles1,189,3094
9Chicago – O'Hare1,138,0127
10Madrid1,093,5383
11Newark1,091,8189
12Rome – Fiumicino1,032,8729
13Singapore1,022,2209
14Munich975,4657
15Mumbai957,43911
16Toronto – Pearson940,4487
17Washington – Dulles920,5149
18Stockholm – Arlanda912,3622
19Istanbul – Atatürk905,00211
20Delhi893,19621
21Johannesburg886,1464
22Zurich876,3851
23Copenhagen870,0722
24Boston866,7192
25San Francisco860,6174
26Geneva859,14342
27Miami822,3153
28Athens784,30818
29Vienna731,10013
30Lisbon727,3354
31Sydney696,3016
32Tokyo – Narita683,1869
33Milan – Linate647,63616
34Doha640,52810
35Barcelona605,98916
36Bangkok – Suvarnabhumi597,8260.5
37Berlin – Tegel596,54316
38Oslo592,4773
39Helsinki578,5433
40Houston – Intercontinental541,6321
Countries with maximum passengers to/from Heathrow (2010)
RankCountry/RegionPassengers handled% Change
2009 / 10
1United States12,340,9330.03
2Germany4,341,2147.57
3Italy2,377,02612.00
4Canada2,354,9654.07
5United Arab Emirates2,291,3380.91
6India2,283,7313.22
7Republic of Ireland2,156,5033.77
8France2,138,5191.81
9Spain2,127,8725.24
10Switzerland1,896,85914.47
11Hong Kong1,386,7799.29
12South Africa1,378,2686.95
13Netherlands1,333,12411.70
14Sweden1,058,1342.01
15Turkey1,046,9107.86
16Australia1,030,6191.34
17Singapore1,022,2209.01
18Denmark870,1041.90
19Russia747,42513.93
20Portugal746,9462.78

Access

Public transport

Train

  • Heathrow Express: a non-stop service directly to London's Paddington station; trains leave every 15 minutes for the 15-minute journey (21 minutes to/from Terminal 5). Trains depart from Heathrow Terminal 5 station or Heathrow Central station (Terminals 1 & 3). A Heathrow Express transfer service operates between Terminal 4 and Heathrow Central to connect with services from London and Terminal 5.
  • Heathrow Connect: a stopping service to Paddington calling at up to five National Rail stations en route – trains leave every 30 minutes for the 27-minute journey. Heathrow Connect services terminate at Heathrow Central station (Terminals 1 & 3).
  • London Underground Piccadilly line: four tube stations serve the airport – Terminals 1, 2, 3; Terminal 4; Terminal 5 serves the passenger terminals, and Hatton Cross the maintenance areas. The standard journey time from Heathrow Terminals 1 & 3 tube station to Central London is around 40–50 minutes.

Bus and coach

Many buses and coaches operate from the large Heathrow airport central bus station serving Terminals 1 and 3, and also from bus stations at Terminals 4 and 5. Services include the following:

  • Long-distance coach services operated by National Express and Oxford Bus Company to various parts of the UK, including Victoria Coach Station in London
  • HotelHoppa buses connect each terminal with hotels in the Heathrow area
  • There are two RailAir coach services connecting nearby railway stations with the airport using dedicated non-stop coaches and running to:
    • Reading railway station, connecting with railway services to the West Country, South Wales, Midlands and the south coast of England
    • Woking railway station, for destinations in Surrey, Hampshire, Dorset and Wiltshire
    • A connection to Feltham railway station, for Richmond, Camberley, Bracknell, London Waterloo and Clapham Junction, using London Buses route 285 (route 490 from Terminals 4 and 5)
  • Express bus services to Watford, St Albans and Harlow (Green Line route 724), Croydon (London Buses route X26) and High Wycombe (Carousel Buses)
  • Local bus services by London Buses, First Berkshire & The Thames Valley and other companies to nearby towns and London suburbs
  • Night bus N9 operates to central London at night when the trains do not operate

Between 1981 and 2004, the airport was linked to central London by a group of routes known as Airbus. These routes carried A prefixes before their numbers; one route, A10, operates with such a number to Uxbridge.

Inter-terminal transport

Terminals 1 and 3 are within walking distance of each other. Transfers to Terminal 4 & 5 are by Heathrow Express trains or bus. Heathrow Express and Heathrow Connect services between Heathrow Central and Terminals 4 and 5 are free of charge. Normal fare rules apply to London Underground services between terminals. Local buses throughout the airport area are provided free of charge under the "Heathrow FreeFlow" scheme; passengers should tell the driver their destination to ensure they are not charged a fare.

Transit passengers remaining airside are provided free dedicated transfer buses between terminals.

ULTra Personal Rapid Transport has been opened in April 2011 to shuttle passengers to and from Terminal 5 at a speed of up to 40 km/h. The initial trial will have 18 pods running. ULTra are small transportation pods that can fit four adults, two children, and their luggage and will be able to carry passengers directly to the terminal. The pods are battery powered and will be initially used on a four kilometre track. If the trial is successful there are plans for a roll out airport wide. The capsules run on demand. The provider claims a 95% availability rate and no accidents so far.

Taxi

Taxis are available at all terminals.

Car

Heathrow is accessible via the nearby M4 motorway and A4 road (Terminals 1–3), the M25 motorway (Terminals 4 and 5), and the A30 road (Terminal 4). There are drop off and pick up areas at all terminals and short and long stay multi-storey car parks. Additionally, there are car parks not run by BAA just outside the airport, the most recognisable is the National Car Parks facility although there are many other options; these car parks are connected to the terminals by shuttle buses.

Four parallel tunnels under one of the runways connect the M4 motorway and the A4 road to Terminals 1–3. The two larger tunnels are each two lanes wide and are used for motorised traffic. The two smaller tunnels were originally reserved for pedestrians and bicycles; to increase traffic capacity the cycle lanes have been modified to each take a single lane of cars, although bicycles still have priority over cars. Pedestrian access to the smaller tunnels has been discontinued, with the free bus services being the alternative.

Bicycle

There are (mainly off-road) bicycle routes to some of the terminals. Free bicycle parking places are available in car parks 1 and 1A, at Terminal 4, and to the North and South of Terminal 5's Interchange Plaza.

Accidents and incidents

  • On 3 March 1948, Sabena Douglas DC3 Dakota OO-AWH crashed in fog. Three crew and 19 of the 22 passengers on board died.
  • On 31 October 1950, BEA Vickers Viking G-AHPN crashed at Heathrow after hitting the runway during a go-around. Three crew and 25 passengers died.
  • On 1 August 1956, XA897, an Avro Vulcan strategic bomber of the Royal Air Force, crashed at Heathrow after an approach in bad weather. The Vulcan was the first to be delivered to the RAF, and was returning from a demonstration flight to Australia and New Zealand. The pilot and co-pilot ejected and survived, but the four other occupants were killed.
  • On 7 January 1960, Vickers Viscount G-AOHU of BEA was damaged beyond economic repair when the nose wheel collapsed on landing. A fire then developed and burnt out the fuselage. There were no casualties among the 59 people on board.
  • On 27 October 1965, BEA Vickers Vanguard G-APEE, flying from Edinburgh, crashed on Runway 28R while attempting to land in poor visibility. All 30 passengers and six crew on board died.
  • On 8 April 1968, BOAC Flight 712 Boeing 707 G-ARWE, departing for Australia via Singapore, suffered an engine fire just after take-off. The engine fell from the wing into a nearby gravel pit in Staines, before the plane managed to perform an emergency landing with the wing on fire. However, the plane was consumed by fire once on the ground. Five people; four passengers and a stewardess – died, while 122 survived. Barbara Harrison, a flight attendant on board who helped with the evacuation, was posthumously awarded the George Cross.
  • On 3 July 1968, the port flap operating rod of G-AMAD, an Airspeed Ambassador operated by BKS Air Transport failed due to fatigue thereby allowing the port flaps to retract. This resulted in a rolling moment to port which could not be controlled during the approach, causing the aircraft to contact the grass and swerve towards the terminal building. It hit two parked British European Airways Hawker Siddeley Trident aircraft, burst into flames and came to rest against the ground floor of the terminal building. Six of the eight crew died, as did eight horses on board. Trident G-ARPT was written off, and Trident G-ARPI was badly damaged, but subsequently repaired, only to be lost in the Staines crash in 1972.
  • On 22 January 1970, Vickers Viscount G-AWXI of British Midland was damaged beyond economic repair when an engine caught fire on take-off. A successful emergency landing was made at Heathrow.
  • On 18 June 1972, Trident G-ARPI, operating as BEA548, crashed in a field close to the Crooked Billet Public House, Staines, two minutes after taking off. All 118 passengers and crew on board died.
  • On 5 November 1997, a Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300, G-VSKY, made an emergency landing following an undercarriage malfunction. Part of the undercarriage collapsed on landing, and both aircraft and runway were damaged. Recommendations made as a result of the accident included one that aircraft cabin door simulators should more accurately reproduce operating characteristics in an emergency, and another that cockpit voice recorders should have a two-hour duration in aircraft registered before April 1998.
  • On 17 January 2008, a British Airways Boeing 777-236ER, G-YMMM, operating flight BA038 from Beijing, crash-landed at Heathrow. The aircraft landed on grass short of the south runway, then slid to the edge of the runway and stopped on the threshold, leading to eighteen minor injuries. The aircraft was later found to have suffered loss of thrust caused by fuel icing.

Terrorism and security incidents

  • On 8 June 1968, James Earl Ray, the man convicted of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., was captured and arrested at Heathrow Airport while attempting to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport.
  • On 19 May 1974, the IRA planted a series of bombs in the Terminal 1 car park. Two people were injured by the explosions.
  • On 26 November 1983, the Brink's-MAT robbery occurred, in which 6,800 gold bars worth nearly £26 million were taken from a vault near Heathrow. Only a fraction of the gold was ever recovered, and only two men were convicted of the crime.
  • On 17 April 1986, semtex explosives were found in the bag of a pregnant Irishwoman attempting to board an El Al flight. The explosives had been given to her by her Jordanian boyfriend and father of their unborn child Nizar Hindawi. The incident became known as the Hindawi Affair.
  • On 21 December 1988, Pan Am Flight 103 from Heathrow to New York/JFK was blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 on board and 11 other people on the ground.
  • In 1994, over a six-day period, Heathrow was targeted three times (8, 10, and 13 March) by the IRA, who fired 12 mortars. Heathrow was a symbolic target due to its importance to the UK economy, and much disruption was caused when areas of the airport were closed over the period. The gravity of the incident was heightened by the fact that the Queen was being flown back to Heathrow by the RAF on 10 March.
  • In March 2002, thieves stole US$3 million that had arrived on a South African Airways flight.
  • In February 2003, the British Army was deployed to Heathrow, along with 1,000 police officers, in response to intelligence reports suggesting that al-Qaeda terrorists might launch surface-to-air missile attacks at British or American airliners.
  • On 17 May 2004, Scotland Yard's Flying Squad foiled an attempt by seven men to steal £40 million in gold bullion and a similar quantity of cash from the Swissport warehouse at Heathrow.
  • On 10 August 2006, the airport became the focus of changes in security protocol, following the revelation of a supposed al-Qaeda terrorist plot. New security rules were put in force immediately, causing additional but essential restrictions in regards to carrying liquids on board flights. This caused longer queues and wait times at security. These included the prohibition of carry-on luggage (except essential items such as travel documents and medication) and all liquids – although this rule was later relaxed to allow the carrying on board of liquid medications and baby milk, provided that they were tasted first by passengers at the security checkpoint.
  • On 25 February 2008, Greenpeace activists protesting against the planned third runway managed to cross the tarmac and climb on top of a British Airways Airbus A320, which had just arrived from Manchester Airport. At about 09:45 GMT the protesters unveiled a banner, saying "Climate Emergency – No Third Runway", over the aircraft's tailfin. By 11:00 GMT four arrests had been made.
  • On 13 March 2008, a man with a rucksack scaled the perimeter fence onto runway 27R, and ran across the grounds, resulting in his subsequent arrest. A controlled explosion of his bag took place, although nothing suspicious was found, and the Metropolitan Police later said that the incident had not been terrorism related.

Other incidents

  • Flights from Heathrow were suspended from midday Thursday 15 April 2010 to 22:00 Tuesday 20 April 2010 due to risk of jet engines being damaged by volcanic ash in the upper atmosphere caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland.
  • On 18 December 2010, 'heavy' (9 cm, according to the Heathrow Winter Resilience Enquiry ) snowfall caused the closure of the entire airport, causing one of the largest incidents at Heathrow of all time. 4,000 flights were cancelled over five days and 9,500 passengers spent the night at Heathrow on 18 December following the initial snowfall. The problems were caused not only by snow on the runways, but also by snow and ice on the 198 parking stands which were all occupied by aircraft.

Future expansion

Runway and terminal expansion

In January 2009 the Transport Secretary Geoff Hoon announced that the UK government supports the expansion of Heathrow by building a third runway and a sixth terminal building. This decision follows the 2003 white paper on the future of air transport in the UK, and a public consultation in November 2007. This was a controversial decision which met with widespread opposition because of its greenhouse gas emissions, destruction of local communities, as well as noise and air pollution concerns.

Before the 2010 General Election the Conservative and Liberal Democrats parties announced that they would prevent the construction of any third runway or further material expansion of the airport's operating capacity. The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, has admitted that London needs more airport capacity but favours constructing an entirely new airport in the Thames Estuary rather than expanding Heathrow. After the Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition took power, it was announced that the third runway expansion was cancelled. built on a link to the High Speed 2 railway line.

Airtrack

In July 2009, Heathrow Airport Limited submitted an application to the Secretary of State for Transport seeking to gain authorisation to develop a new rail link to Heathrow Terminal 5 to be known as Heathrow Airtrack. The rail link would address the current lack of public transport available to the South West of the Airport by connecting to Guildford, Reading and London Waterloo. BAA state that the scheme should add significantly to their aim of increasing the proportion of people using public transport to travel to the Airport. In April 2011, BAA announced that it was abandoning the project, citing the unavailability of government subsidy and other priorities for Heathrow, such as linking to Crossrail and HS2.

Heathrow/Gatwick Rail Link

The Department for Transport is currently studying the possibility of a direct, high-speed rail link between Heathrow and Gatwick Airport.

See also

  • List of airports in the United Kingdom
  • World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
  • World's busiest city airport systems by passenger traffic
  • Busiest airports in Europe by passenger traffic
Bibliography
  • Cotton, Jonathan; Mills, John & Clegg, Gillian. (1986) Archaeology in West Middlesex. Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon
  • Gallop, Alan. (2005) Time Flies: Heathrow At 60. Stroud: Sutton Publishing
  • Halpenny, Bruce B. (1992) Action Stations Vol.8: Military Airfields of Greater London.
  • Sherwood, Philip. (1990) The History of Heathrow. Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon
  • Sherwood, Philip. (1999) Heathrow: 2000 Years of History. Stroud: Sutton Publishing
  • Sherwood, Philip. (2006) Around Heathrow Past & Present. Sutton Publishing
  • Sherwood, Philip. (2009) Heathrow: 2000 Years of History. Stroud: The History Press
  • Sherwood, Tim. (1999) Coming in to Land: A Short History of Hounslow, Hanworth and Heston Aerodromes 1911–1946. Heritage Publications (Hounslow Library)
  • Smith, Graham. (2003) Taking to the Skies: the Story of British Aviation 1903–1939. Countryside
  • Smith, Ron. (2002) British Built Aircraft Vol.1. Greater London: Tempus
  • Sturtivant, Ray. (1995) Fairey Aircraft: in Old Photographs. Alan Sutton
  • Taylor, H.A. (1974) Fairey Aircraft since 1915. Putnam .
  • Taylor, John WR. (1997) Fairey Aviation: Archive Photographs. Chalford

External links



Source en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Heathrow_Airport